Pnc Bank Deposit Slip Transit Number

Canada, Mexico and Central America.


I. Summary

While Belize is not a major drug source, transit or consuming
country, it is part of the

 corridor to the
United States
 officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world’s third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.
The Government of Belize (
 , in the Bible, town, SW ancient Palestine.
) supported narcotics operations and
investigations in 2006 and collaborated with the United States,
including on extradition of fugitives wanted in the United States.
Belize is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Because of its location and geography, Belize is part of the
trans-shipment corridor for illicit drugs between Colombia and Mexico
and the U.S. Belize has borders with Guatemala and Mexico, large tracts
of unpopulated jungles and forested areas, a lengthy unprotected
coastline, hundreds of small keys and islands and numerous

 inland waterways. In 2006, GOB law enforcement officers found abandoned,
suspect trafficking boats in Belizean waters and hidden near the sea,
ready for use in trafficking. Underdeveloped infrastructure and a small
population limit what the authorities can do to suppress narcotics
trafficking. The Belize Police Department (BPD), the Belize Defence
Force (

BDF Bitmap Distribution Format
BDF Banque de France
BDF Backward Differentiation Formula
BDF Business Development Fund
), the International Airport Security Division and the new
Belize National Coast Guard (

) lead counternarcotics efforts. A
small amount of locally consumed marijuana is cultivated in Belize.
There is no evidence of trafficking in precursor chemicals in Belize,
nor are there industries in Belize requiring precursor chemicals.
Corruption and the potential for
money laundering

 are areas of concern.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives/Accomplishments. In its first year the BNCG
began patrolling the Belizean coastline and keys and conducted several
counternarcotics operations. The GOB also instituted anti-corruption
measures related to conflict of interest and migration. The newly
assigned Ministry of Home Affairs Chief Executive Officer opened the
Belize National
Forensic Science

 Services (

NFSS New Font Selection Scheme  
) laboratory at the end
of 2006 and a two-year training program continues.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The GOB’s most serious internal drug
problem is rooted in drug-associated criminality. Obtaining convictions
remains difficult, as the Office of the
Director of Public Prosecutions

 direct (Brit) n →  
 remains under-trained, under-staffed, and under-funded. In 2006, the
BNCG conducted several counternarcotics operations with

Although there were no significant drug seizures, these operations
resulted in the

 of 34 high-powered automatic and
semi-automatic weapons. Seizures in 2006 include: 8 kg (kg) of crack
cocaine, 81 kg of cocaine, 651 kg of marijuana, and minor quantities of
other drugs. From January through September 2006, law enforcement made
1, 397 arrests.

Corruption. The GOB does not facilitate the production, processing,
or shipment of
 any of a number of substances that have a depressant effect on the nervous system. The chief narcotic drugs are opium, its constituents morphine and codeine, and the morphine derivative heroin.

See also drug addiction and drug abuse.
 /psy·cho·tro·pic/ () exerting an effect on the mind; capable of modifying mental activity; said especially of drugs.

 drugs or other controlled
substances, or the laundering of the proceeds from illegal drug
transactions. Nor is any senior official of the government known to be
involved in those activities. The GOB takes limited legal and law
enforcement measures to prevent and punish public corruption. No laws
specifically cover narcotics-related public corruption, but it is
covered under the 1994 Prevention of Corruption in Public Life Act. The
Act created an integrity commission with powers to investigate various
forms of corruption and levy civil penalties on offenders. Despite
allegations of corruption, to date no government officials have been
punished under the Act. While there is no direct evidence of
narcotics-related corruption within the government, other kinds of
corruption are suspected in several areas of the government and at all
levels. Laws against bribery are rarely enforced. IN 2006 there were two
high profile cases of conflict of interest or suspected or confirmed
corruption in the Financial Intelligence Unit, Passports, and the
Department of
 entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important.
 and Nationality.

In June 2001, the GOB signed the OAS
Inter-American Convention
against Corruption

 and supported the revival of the Committee on Public


 and Ethics to review implementation of the convention, but
Belize is not a party to the UN
Convention against corruption


Agreements and Treaties. Belize has been a party to the 1988 UN
Drug Convention since 1996. Belize is one of three countries that has
signed and ratified the Caribbean Regional Agreement on Maritime Counter
Narcotics. In September 1997, the GOB signed the National Crime
Information Center Pilot Project Assessment Agreement (data- and
information-sharing). Recent bilateral agreements between the U.S. and
Belize include a protocol to the Maritime Agreement that entered into
force in April 2000, a bilateral Extradition Treaty with the United
States that entered into force in August 2001, a U.S.-Belize
Legal Assistance Treaty


MLAT Modern Language Aptitude Test
MLAT Multilateration
MLat Medieval Latin  
) that entered into force in July 2003, and
the Inter-American Convention on Serving Criminal Sentences Abroad that
entered into force in 2005.

Although there were no extraditions from Belize in 2006, a number
of U.S. fugitives were deported. In 2005, a U.S. extradition request in
a major drug case was denied on the basis of
insufficient evidence
 n. a finding (decision) by a trial judge or an appeals court that the prosecution in a criminal case or a plaintiff in a lawsuit has not proved the case because the attorney did not present enough convincing evidence.
. This
resulted in a call by U.S. for clarification of standard review in the
extradition treaty to which the Belize
Solicitor General

 responded that
there may be a need for a technical exchange of notes to clarify the
standard review. The matter remains pending. In another extradition
case, pending since 1999, the GOB has not scheduled arguments on the
fugitives’ appeal since 2002. Although the Mutual Legal Assistance
Treaty entered into force in 2003, it was not implemented by the GOB
until 2005. Response to U.S. requests for assistance has been slow.

Belize is a party to the UN
Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime

 and it’s Trafficking in Persons protocol. In 2005,
Belize joined other
Central American

A region of southern North America extending from the southern border of Mexico to the northern border of Colombia. It separates the Caribbean Sea from the Pacific Ocean and is linked to South America by the Isthmus of Panama.
 countries participating in the
Cooperating Nations Information Exchange System (CNIES), which assists
in locating, identifying, tracking and intercepting civil aircraft in
Belize’s airspace. The program has resulted in several significant
seizures in coordinated interdiction operations, particularly with

Cultivation/Production. The widespread marijuana cultivation of a
decade ago has been reduced, but small amounts of illicit cultivation
continue, as do GOB eradication efforts. Between January and August
2006, 121,267 marijuana plants were eradicated.

Drug Flow/Transit and Distribution. The major narcotics threat in
Belize is cocaine transshipment through its
territorial waters
 see waters, territorial.

territorial waters

Waters under the sovereign jurisdiction of a nation or state, including both marginal sea and inland waters.
onward shipment to the U.S. The primary means for smuggling drugs are
“go-fast” boats transiting Belize’s lengthy coastline and
reef system, then transshipment along navigable inland waterways and to
remote border crossings. Interdiction is hampered by the lack of
adequate host nation resources and lax customs enforcement.

Domestic Program/Demand Reduction. The National Drug Abuse Control
Council (NDACC), which provides drug abuse education, information,
counseling, rehabilitation, outreach, and a public commercial campaign,
coordinates GOB’s demand reduction efforts. In 2006, the USG and
the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (

) assisted the
GOB to establish a treatment, rehabilitation and social integration
center for drug abusers in Belize, and the USG added more support for
2007. Through

CICAD Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 
, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission,
the U.S. also supported school-based substance abuse prevention and life
skills education.

U.S. Policy Initiatives and Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S.
strategy in Belize continues to focus on assisting the GOB in developing
a sustainable infrastructure to combat drug trafficking. The USG
provides support to the Belizean Forensic Laboratory to increase the
justice system’s successful investigations and prosecution of
crimes; programs for at-risk school youth and prison

; and maritime security and law enforcement. In 2006 the
USG provided a third refurbished “go-fast” boat for
counternarcotics operations and tactical gear. The USG also assisted the
GOB with the establishment of a Voluntary

 Testing program.
Members of the Police Department Anti-Drug Unit, Police Special Branch,
Belize Defence Force Air Wing and Belize National Coast Guard
participated in this exercise, led by the Commandant of the BNCG.

A number of training courses were provided in 2006 to improve
Belizean anti crime capacity. The USG and Canada provided Carrier
Liaison training to airlines and Fraudulent Detection and Smuggling
Deterrence training to local Belize Police Officers, Immigration and
Customs officials, and Belize National Coast Guard. The USG provided

maritime law
 system of law concerning navigation and overseas commerce. Because ships sail from nation to nation over seas no nation owns, nations need to seek agreement over customs related to shipping.
 enforcement, search and rescue, engineering, and
professional development training to the BNCG. The USG continues to
provide technical assistance for developing and implementing an
appropriate legislative framework to provide the BNCG with clear
authorities. Additionally, the USG provided training to the Police
Department in interdiction, narcotics officer survival, parcel
investigations, anti-terrorism, antigang, asset seizure and other
related topics.

The Road Ahead. Given frequent changes in trafficking routes and
lack of resources for maritime and air assets, the potential remains for
trans-shipment of cocaine through Belize to increase. Local marijuana
cultivation necessitates continual monitoring and periodic eradication.
After eight years in power, the People’s United Party continues to
advocate combating drug trafficking and associated crime, but provides
limited resources. USG assistance will continue to focus on supporting
police counternarcotics units, Belize National Coast Guard,
investigative, forensic and prosecutor units, and the Financial
Intelligence Unit.


I. Summary

In 2006, the
Government of Canada


GOC General Officer Commanding
GOC Greek Orthodox Church
GOC Gay Outdoor Club
GOC Government of Colombia
) implemented the Precursor
Control Amendments to the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act to
establish a regulatory framework to curtail the production of illicit
drugs. Canada has an active strategy to combat
illicit drug
 Street drug, see there
production, and distribution, including public-private partnerships such
as “MethWatch” to assist retailers in identifying irregular
sales of precursor chemicals. In addition, integrated U.S.-Canadian law
enforcement teams disrupted drug smuggling operations, highlighted by
one involving pilots transporting marijuana and cocaine across isolated
parts of the border. Canada has graduated from being a transit country
to a source country for ecstasy (

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine; a mescaline analog.

 3,4 methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. See Ecstasy.
), due to organized criminal
activities. Canada is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, and serves
as a member of the UN
Commission on Narcotic Drugs


II. Status of Country

While Canada is primarily a drug-consuming country, it also a
significant producer of high-quality marijuana and has emerged as a
source country for MDMA. Additionally it serves as a transit or
diversion point for precursor chemicals and over-the-counter
pharmaceuticals used to produce illicit synthetic drugs (notably MDMA
and methamphetamine). Canada’s Renewed Drug Strategy (2003)
provides a federal policy response to the harmful use of substances.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. In January 2006, the Precursor Control
Amendments to the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act went into effect.
These amendments strengthen verification of import and export licensing
procedures, require that companies requesting licenses provide
additional detail in their initial requests, establish guidelines on the
suspension and revocation of licenses for abusers, and add controls on
six chemicals that can be used to produce gamma-hydroxybutyric acid


 1 Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, γ-hydroxy-butyrate See GABA 2 Glycosylated hemoglobin, see there

 Glycosylated hemoglobin, see there
) and/or methamphetamine. They also authorize
Health Canada

consider adverse law enforcement information in licensure and renewal
decisions. When the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
 constabulary organized (1873) as the Northwest Mounted Police to bring law and order to the Canadian west. In 1920 the name was changed to the present title.
 (RCMP) seized one ton
of red

Of, relating to, or containing phosphorus, especially with a valence of 3 or a valence lower than that of a comparable phosphoric compound.
 in September, the Precursor Control Amendments
enabled the RCMP to charge an individual with selling and possession for
the purpose of selling a
precursor chemical

. The individual was also
charged with cultivation of marijuana under the Controlled Substances
and Drugs Act.

Law Enforcement Efforts.
According to

1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of:

2. In keeping with:

 unofficial GOC statistics,
during 2006 it seized 1,500 kilograms (kg) of cocaine during 100
operations, 80 kg of heroin in 60 operations, 20 kg of opium in 20
operations and one metric ton of
 , resin extracted from the flower clusters and top leaves of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, and C. indica.
 oil. The RCMP did not provide
statistics on marijuana seizures for 2006, or information on operations
against MDMA production. A joint MDMA and marijuana trafficking
investigation, Operation Northern X-Posure, resulted in the arrests of
approximately 26 high-level distributors in both countries, including
six persons in Toronto. In August, The RCMP identified 250 outdoor
marijuana-growing sites and seized 16,500 marijuana plants in a two-week
period on
Vancouver Island
 (1991 pop. 579,921), 12,408 sq mi (32,137 sq km), SW British Columbia, Canada, in the Pacific Ocean; largest island off W North America. It is c.285 mi (460 km) long and c.
, British Colombia.

Corruption. Canada has strong anti-corruption controls in place and
holds its officials and law enforcement personnel to a high standard of
conduct. Civil servants found to be engaged in

 of any kind
are removed from office and are subject to prosecution. Investigations
into accusations of wrongdoing and corruption by civil servants are
thorough and credible. No senior government officials are known to
engage in, encourage, or facilitate the illicit production or
distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled
substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug
transactions. As a matter of government policy, Canada neither
encourages nor facilitates illicit production or distribution of
narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the
laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions.

Agreements and Treaties. Canada is party to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention, the 1971 UN
Convention on Psychotropic Substances

, and the
1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol. Canada is
also a party to the Inter-American Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance
in Criminal Matters; the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit
Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and
Other Related Materials; and the Inter-American Convention Against
Corruption. Canada actively cooperates with international partners. The
USG and GOC exchange forfeited assets through a bilateral asset sharing
agreement, and exchange information to prevent, investigate, and

1. To hold back by an act of volition.

2. To exclude something from the conscious mind.
 any offense against U.S. or Canadian customs laws through a Customs
Mutual Assistance Agreement. The GOC has signed 30 bilateral mutual
legal assistance treaties and 87 extradition treaties. Judicial
assistance and extradition matters between the U.S. and Canada are made
through a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) and an extradition
treaty and protocols.

Cultivation/Production. Commercial marijuana cultivation thrives in
Canada in part because growers do not face strict legal punishment.
Though outdoor cultivation continues, the use of large and more
sophisticated indoor-grow operations is increasing because it allows
year-round production. The RCMP reports the involvement of ethnic
Chinese and Vietnamese organized-crime organizations in
technologically-advanced organic grow methods that produce marijuana
with elevated

Tetrahydrocannabinol; a compound that is obtained from cannabis or is made synthetically; it is the primary intoxicant in marijuana and hashish.
 levels. In fact, the marijuana industry in Canada is
becoming increasingly sophisticated, with organized crime groups relying
on marijuana sales as a primary source of income and using the profits
to finance other illicit activities. The RCMP reports that frequently
Canadian marijuana is trafficked to the United States and exchanged for
currency, firearms, and cocaine. Recently, Asian drug trafficking
organizations based in Canada have experimented with new methods to
evade law enforcement and expand their businesses. This trend includes
the increasing use of eastern ports of entry along the Canadian border
for marijuana smuggling and the establishment of indoor-grow operations
on the U.S. side of the border, especially in the Pacific Northwest and

The demand for, and production of, synthetic drugs is on the rise
in Canada, particularly methamphetamine and MDMA. Reports of GHB use are
increasing. According to DEA, GHB has been used in the commission of
sexual assaults because it renders the victim incapable of resisting,
and may cause memory problems that could complicate case prosecution.
Clandestine laboratories – once largely located in rural areas but
expanding into urban, residential neighborhoods–are becoming larger and
more sophisticated. Approximately 95 percent of the methamphetamine sold
originates from multi-kilogram operations. In June 2006, authorities in
Ontario seized a methamphetamine super lab, the largest in
Ontario’s history, with 35 kilograms of finished methamphetamine
and 25 kilograms of
 , drug derived from plants of the genus Ephedra (see Pinophyta), most commonly used to prevent mild or moderate attacks of bronchial asthma.

Drug Flow/Transit. U.S. and Canadian law enforcement received
reports of seizures of ephedrine (a methamphetamine precursor) in India
destined for Canada, including two large seizures in August and
September 2006. The shipment of the precursor appears to be controlled
by Canadian criminal organizations. In June 2006, the U.S. and Canadian
Integrated Border Enforcement Team (
) busted a drug

 that utilized helicopters and
fixed-wing aircraft


v. smug·gled, smug·gling, smug·gles
1. To import or export without paying lawful customs charges or duties.

2. To bring in or take out illicitly or by stealth.
 marijuana to and from the two countries through sparsely
populated regions. The August 2006 Criminal Intelligence Services Canada
annual report on organized crime indicates that there are 800 organized
crime groups in Canada, of which approximately 80 percent are involved
in the illegal drug trade in some capacity. The report also highlighted
an increase in the cross-border drug trade, especially in MDMA.
Asian-Pacific (AP) officials indicate that Canada has become a source
country for drugs to their region. AP officials report increasing drug
smuggling from Canada, primarily to Australia, Japan, and Korea, but
also to
Hong Kong
 , Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov.
New Zealand
 , island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland.
, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

Domestic Programs. Canada has embarked on a number of
harm-reduction programs at the federal and local levels. On September 1,
Health Canada announced that no new governmentsponsored injection sites
will be opened until a new National Drug Strategy is promulgated and
additional research is completed on the existing sole site in Vancouver.
The Vancouver site has been in operation since 2003 and is authorized to
operate until December 2007. Several cities have also approved programs
to distribute
drug paraphernalia
 Controlled paraphernalia Substance abuse As defined in a regulatory context, DP is a hypodermic syringe, needle, metal or plastic (snorting) tube, or other instrument or implement or combination adapted for the administration of controlled
, including crack pipes, to chronic
users. Delivery of demand reduction, education, treatment and
rehabilitation is primarily the responsibility of the provincial and
territorial governments and Health Canada provides funding for these

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. and Canada cooperate closely at the
federal, state/provincial, and local levels. In November 2006, the
annual U.S./Canada Cross-Border Crime Forum engaged policy-makers and
senior operational directors in a joint effort to guide the relationship
strategically, to develop a common agenda, and to enhance operational
coordination. Two examples are Project North Star, a mechanism for law
enforcement coordination at the state and local level; and the joint
Integrated Border Enforcement Teams (IBETs), which have become a primary
tool in ensuring that criminals cannot exploit the international border
to evade justice. The joint MDMA and marijuana trafficking
investigation, Operation Northern X-Posure, underscored bilateral
law-enforcement efforts between the two nations. In May, the RCMP and
DEA co-hosted the 2006 International Drug Enforcement Conference (

IDEC Information Design & End-User Computing
IDEC Interior Design Educators Council, Inc.
in Montreal. This annual, DEA-sponsored conference brought together
high-ranking law enforcement officials for the largest IDEC contingent
ever, representing 81 countries, to share drug-related information and
to develop a coordinated approach to combat criminal threats. Canada
also expanded cooperative efforts with the United States against illicit
trafficking in the transit zone from
South America
 fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere.
North America
 third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere.
Maritime Patrol

 Assets in support of Joint Interagency Task
Force South. U.S Customs and Border Protection and Canada Border
Security Agency meet between two and four times a year to discuss
programs and initiatives of mutual concern.

Road Ahead. In 2007, the United States and Canada will continue to
joint operations

 against drug-trafficking organizations. The USG
will look to Canada for cooperation in monitoring and tracking precursor
chemical activity, interception of suspicious shipments, and addressing
the rise in MDMA production there. The GOC should continue to look for
ways to improve its regulatory and enforcement capacity, as well as to
encourage industry compliance–to prevent diversion of precursor
chemicals for criminal use. With much of the legal framework already in
place, Canada should focus on improving the effectiveness of its
inspectorate regime. Canada should also continue its efforts to
identify, disrupt and prosecute money-laundering operations.

The USG wishes to embark on a new cooperative, joint policing model
designed to make the maritime border as seamless to law enforcement
officers as it is to criminals. The Integrated Marine Security
Operations (

) program, also referred to as “Shiprider,”
would facilitate effective maritime law enforcement by cross-designating
each party’s law enforcement officers as customs officers. It would
allow cross-designated officers to operate from the vessels or aircraft
of the other country; thereby, permitting a single vessel to patrol both
Canadian and U.S. waters and pursue suspect vessels. All law enforcement
activities in host nation waters would be conducted under the direction
and supervision of host nation officers. The USG is also seeking
reciprocal treatment for U.S. federal maritime law enforcement officers
by expanding on USG-granted blanket diplomatic clearance for Canadian
law enforcement officers to carry their weapons while transiting in and
out of U.S. waters on the
Great Lakes
 group of five freshwater lakes, central North America, creating a natural border between the United States and Canada and forming the largest body of freshwater in the world, with a combined surface area of c.95,000 sq mi (246,050 sq km).
 aboard Canadian government
vessels. The U.S. further encourages Canada
to take steps

 to improve its
ability to expedite investigations and prosecutions. Strengthening
judicial deterrents in Canada would be extremely useful in curbing the
expansion of criminal organizations in Canada. The U.S. supports
Canada’s efforts to increase the availability of science-based
treatment programs to reduce drug use, as opposed to measures, which
facilitate drug abuse in the hopes of reducing some of its harmful

Costa Rica

I. Summary

Costa Rica is a significant trans-shipment point for narcotics
destined for the United States and Europe. Drug seizures rose
dramatically under the new Arias administration, nearly doubling last
year’s total. Costa Rican authorities seized a record 11.5 metric
tons (MT) of cocaine and 84.9 kg (kg) of heroin in 2006 in addition to
the nearly 14 MT of cocaine seized off Costa Rica’s coasts by U.S.
law enforcement with Costa Rican cooperation. Local consumption of
illicit narcotics, particularly crack cocaine, along with the violent
crimes associated with drug use, is a growing concern. In 2006 the
Government of Costa Rica (

) continued to implement a 2002 narcotics
control law that criminalized money laundering.
Joint implementation

the 1998 bilateral Maritime Counterdrug Cooperation Agreement continues
to improve the overall maritime security of Costa Rica. In 2006 the
Costa Rican Counternarcotics Institute (
 International Classification of Diseases (of the World Health Organization); intrauterine contraceptive device.

 enhanced its coordination
efforts in the areas of intelligence, demand reduction, asset seizure,
and precursor chemical licensing. Costa Rica is a party to the 1988 UN
Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Costa Rica’s long Atlantic and Pacific coastlines and
strategic point on the
 , narrow neck of land connecting two larger land areas. Since it commands the only land route between two large areas and is on two seas, an isthmus has great strategical and commercial importance and is a favorable situation
 linking Colombia with the United make it
vulnerable to drug transshipment for South American cocaine and heroin
destined primarily for the United States. The GOCR cooperates with the
USG in combating narcotics trafficking by land and sea.

Costa Rica also has a stringent governmental licensing process for
the importation and distribution of controlled precursor chemicals

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. The Costa Rican Counternarcotics Institute
(ICD) changed leadership in 2006 and greatly enhanced its coordination
efforts in the areas of intelligence, demand reduction, asset seizure,
and precursor chemical licensing. Costa Rica is focusing on adapting its
plans to realistic goals given its somewhat limited resources.

Accomplishments. Close relations between U.S. law enforcement
agencies and GOCR counterparts resulted in regular information-sharing
and joint operations. As a result, authorities seized record amounts of
drugs in 2006. Costa Rican authorities (in coordination with U.S. law
enforcement) seized a record 25.5 MT of cocaine while increasing
seizures of crack and eradicating over 650,000 marijuana plants. Costa
Rican drug police tripled seizures of processed marijuana to 2,881 kg
and increased heroin seizures to 84.9 kg. In addition, Costa Rican
authorities seized 3,405 Ecstasy tablets and confiscated over $4 million
in suspect currency. Thanks to a crack down after the Arias
Administration came to power, drug-related arrests skyrocketed to 21,199
in 2006 as compared to 6,251 in 2005 and only 1,024 in 2004.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The primary counternarcotics agencies in
Costa Rica are the Judicial Investigative Police (
) in the judicial
branch, and the Ministry of Public Security’s Drug Control Police

) of the executive branch. Other authorities include the Costa Rican
Coast Guard, the Air Surveillance Section, and the nearly 10,000-member
police force. The OIJ operates a small, highly professional Narcotics
Section that specializes in investigating domestic and international
narcotics trafficking. The PCD investigates both domestic and
international drug smuggling, and coordinates
international operations

Both entities conduct complex investigations of drug trafficking
organizations, resulting in arrests and the confiscation of cocaine and
other drugs.

The interagency Mobile Enforcement Team (MET), consisting of canine
units, drug control police, customs police and specialized vehicles,
coordinated six cross-border operations with authorities in Nicaragua
and Panama in 2006. The ICD increased the frequency of MET deployments
but has not yet met its goal of two per month.

Corruption. No senior official of the GOCR engages in, encourages,
or facilitates the illicit production or distribution of such drugs, or
the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. In 2006,
Costa Rica passed a draconian law against illicit enrichment in response
to unprecedented corruption scandals, involving three ex-presidents that
were exposed in 2004. Although the ex-presidents’ cases have not
yet gone to trial, Costa Rica’s commitment to combat public
corruption appears to have been strengthened by the scandals.

The GOCR aggressively investigates allegations of official
corruption or abuse. U.S. law enforcement agencies consider the public
security forces and judicial officials to be full partners in
counternarcotics investigations and operations.

Agreements and Treaties. The 1998 bilateral Maritime Counterdrug
Cooperation Agreement continues to serve as the model maritime agreement
Central America
 narrow, southernmost region (c.202,200 sq mi/523,698 sq km) of North America, linked to South America at Colombia. It separates the Caribbean from the Pacific.
 and the Caribbean. Provisions of the maritime
agreement were actively used in joint operations that resulted in record
seizures at sea during 2006.

The United States-Costa Rican extradition treaty, in force since
1991, was actively used in 2006. Costa Rica ratified the Inter-American
Convention Against Corruption in 1997 and signed the UN Convention
Against Corruption in 2003. Costa Rica ratified a bilateral stolen
vehicles treaty in 2002. Costa Rica is a party to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention, the 1961
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

, as amended by
its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
Costa Rica ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized
Crime and its Supplemental Protocols in 2003.

Costa Rica and the United States are also parties to bilateral drug
information and intelligence sharing agreements dating from 1975 and
1976. Costa Rica is a member of the Caribbean Financial Action Task
Force and the
Egmont Group

. It is a member of the Inter-American Drug
Abuse Control Commission of the
Organization of American States
 (OAS), international organization, created Apr. 30, 1948, at Bogotá, Colombia, by agreement of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti,
 (OAS/CICAD). Costa Rica was one of the first countries to sign the
Caribbean regional maritime counternarcotics agreement when it opened
for signature in April 2003, and is the depository for the document, but
has not yet taken the necessary internal steps to bring it into force.

Cultivation/Production. Low quality marijuana is grown in remote
areas. An indoor
 growing of plants without soil in water to which nutrients have been added. Hydroponics has been used for over a century as a research technique, but not until 1929 were experiments conducted solely to determine its feasibility for growing commercial
 cannabis production facility was seized in
2006. The last similar seizure was in 2004. The small scale of the
operation indicated domestic consumption only, despite export-quality
potency of the marijuana. Costa Rica does not produce other illicit drug
crops or synthetic drugs.

Drug Flow/Transit. In 2006, the trend toward frequent, smaller
(50-500 kg) shipments of drugs transiting Costa Rica in truck and
passenger car compartments continued. With two notable exceptions in
2006, this modality accounted for almost all cocaine seizures on land.
The trend toward increased trafficking of narcotics by maritime routes
has also continued with nearly 14 MT of cocaine seized at sea in 2006 by
U.S. law enforcement. One of these seizures was the largest in Costa
Rican history (7.8 MT seized on a Costa Rican-flagged fishing vessel).
Traffickers continue to use Costa Rican-flagged fishing boats to smuggle
multi-ton shipments of drugs and to provide fuel for other go-fast

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The Prevention Unit of the ICD
oversees drug prevention efforts and educational programs throughout the
country. The ICD and the Ministry of Education distribute
demand-reduction materials to all school children. The MET team often
visits local schools in the wake of a deployment. The team’s
canines and specialized vehicles make effective emissaries for
demand-reduction messages.

In 2006, the ICD worked closely with the U.S. Embassy to produce a
demand reduction video and discussion guide for use in public schools
and took the lead in organizing a demand reduction event during
Ribbon week

 in Limon, one of Costa Rica’s poorest and most
crime-ridden provinces.

V. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs VI. U.S. Policy
Initiatives. The U.S. seeks to compliment and build upon the on-going
successful maritime experience by turning more attention and resources
to land interdiction strategies, including expanded coverage of
airports, seaports and border checkpoints.

Bilateral Cooperation. In 2006, the USG sought to implement the
bilateral Maritime Counterdrug Cooperation Agreement and enhance the
ability of the Air Section of the Public Security Ministry to respond to
illicit drug activities by providing equipment and technical training.
The USG also improved law enforcement capacity by providing training and
equipment to the OIJ Narcotics Section, the PCD, the Intelligence Unit
of the ICD, the National Police Academy, and the Customs Control Police;
and increasing public awareness by providing assistance to Costa Rican
demandreduction programs. In addition, the USG provided training,
computer equipment, software and other equipment to the Ministry of
Public Security, the Judicial Branch, the ICD’s Financial
Intelligence Unit, and the inter-agency MET unit.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to provide technical
expertise, training, and funding to
tr.v. pro·fes·sion·al·ized, pro·fes·sion·al·iz·ing, pro·fes·sion·al·iz·es
To make professional.

 Costa Rica’s
Coast Guard and enhance its capabilities to conduct independent maritime
law enforcement operations in accordance with the bilateral Maritime
Counterdrug Cooperation Agreement. In the coming year, the GOCR will
tr.v. pro·fes·sion·al·ized, pro·fes·sion·al·iz·ing, pro·fes·sion·al·iz·es
To make professional.

 of its public security forces; implement
and expand controls against money laundering; and expand its efforts
against corruption. It intends to deploy the MET interdiction team twice
a month. The GOCR also plans to increase its police force by 4,000
additional officers over the next four years.

El Salvador
 , officially Republic of El Salvador, republic (2005 est. pop. 6,705,000), 8,260 sq mi (21,393 sq km), Central America.

I. Summary

El Salvador is a transit country for narcotics, mainly cocaine and
heroin. Illicit drugs that enter the country from South America make
their way to the United States by land, eventually through Mexico. In
2006, the National Police (

PnC Point ‘n Click
PNC Police National Computer
PNC People’s National Congress
PNC People’s National Congress
) seized 445 kg (kg) of marijuana, 100 kg
of cocaine, and 23 kg of heroin. Although El Salvador is not a major
financial center, assets forfeited and seized as the result of
drug-related crimes amounted to over $2 million. El Salvador is party to
the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Along with its Central American neighbors, El Salvador is a transit
point for cocaine and heroin that flow through the Eastern Pacific and
by land. El Salvador hosts a
Forward Operating Location

 for trafficking
detection and interception. Criminal youth gangs also plague El
Salvador. While not deemed to be major traffickers, gangs retail drugs
and provide “muscle” for protecting shipments. Precursor
chemical production, trading, and transit are not significant problems
in El Salvador.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. In 2006, the Government of El Salvador (GOES),
in cooperation with the United States, Mexico, and other Central
American countries, implemented Operation All Inclusive against
trafficking along Central America’s Atlantic and Pacific coastlines
and money laundering operations. The Anti-Narcotics Division (DAN) of
the National Civilian Police (PNC) also targeted overland
transportation, commercial air, package delivery services, and maritime
transportation in the
Gulf of Fonseca

. As a result of the operation, the
PNC seized 12 kg of cocaine and arrested 12 individuals for trafficking

Accomplishments. Several significant developments during the year
demonstrated the GOES commitment to the objectives of the 1988 UN Drug
Convention. USG-supported Containerized Freight Tracking System (

at the Amatillo border crossing with Honduras permits the GOES to
inspect commercial and passenger vehicles arriving from Honduras. In
2006, police at the CFTS inspected 1,750 commercial freight trucks,
4,748 passenger buses, and 7,680 passenger vehicles, and seized 13 kg of
marijuana, seven kg of cocaine, and 10 kg of heroin. Police operations
at the Amatillo border crossing resulted in the arrests of 28
individuals for trafficking offenses. In 2006, the National Police (PNC)
seized a total of 445 kg (kg) of marijuana, 100 kg of cocaine, and 23 kg
of heroin.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Law enforcement efforts in 2006 were
primarily focused on priority targets of mutual interest to both the
United States and the GOES. Salvadoran police investigators and
prosecutors traveled to the United States on numerous occasions to share
intelligence and coordinate operations. Policies initiated by the newly
elected Salvadoran Attorney General, such as embedding prosecutors
within police units, exponentially increased cooperation between
prosecutors and the police over the previous year. The narcotics police
are professionally competent, but their capabilities are hampered by a
lack of resources and legal impediments against


Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GOES does not encourage or
facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotics or
psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions. Under Salvadoran law, using
one’s official position in relation to the commission of a drug
offense is an aggravating circumstance that can result in an increased
sentence of up to one-third of the statutory maximum. This includes
accepting or receiving money or other benefits in exchange for an act or
omission in relation to one’s official duties. The PNC’s
Internal Affairs Unit and the Attorney General’s Office investigate
and prosecute GOES officials for corruption and abuse of authority.

El Salvador is a party to the Inter-American Convention Against
Corruption. Consistent with the country’s obligations under that
Convention, the law criminalizes soliciting, receiving, offering,
promising, and giving bribes, as well as the illicit use and concealment
of property derived from such activity. El Salvador is also a party to
the UN Convention Against Corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. El Salvador is a party to the 1971 UN
Convention on Psychotropic Substances; the 1961 UN Single Convention as
amended by the 1972 Protocol; the Central American convention for the
Prevention of Money Laundering Related to Drug-Trafficking and Similar
Crimes; the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its
three protocols, and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The current
extradition treaty between the United States and El Salvador does not
mandate the extradition of Salvadoran nationals. Negotiation of a new
treaty has stalled in light of a Salvadoran constitutional ban on life


See also Isolation.

Alcatraz Island

former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]

Altmark, the

German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist.
, which may prove an obstacle to extradition in some cases.
Narcotics offenses are covered as
1. Subject to extradition:

2. Making liable to extradition:  
 crimes by virtue of the
1988 UN Drug Convention.

Cultivation/Production. Small quantities of poor quality marijuana
are produced in the mountainous regions along the border with Guatemala
and Honduras for domestic consumption. There is no evidence of coca or
poppy cultivation.

Drug Flow/Transit. Cocaine and heroin from Colombia typically
transits El Salvador via the Pan-American Highway and maritime routes
off the country’s Pacific coast. Most drugs transiting
terrestrially are carried by commercial bus passengers in their luggage.
Both heroin and cocaine also transit by go-fast boats and commercial
vessels off the Salvadoran coast.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). The GOES manages its demand
reduction program through several government agencies. The Ministry of
Education presents lifestyle and drug prevention courses in the public
schools, as well as providing after school activities. The PNC operates
a D.A.R.E. (
Drug Abuse Resistance Education

) program modeled on the U.S.
program. The Ministries of Governance and Transportation have units that
advocate drug-free lifestyles. The Public Security Council (Consejo
Nacional de Seguridad Publica) is actively involved in
tr.v. de·mo·bil·ized, de·mo·bil·iz·ing, de·mo·bil·iz·es
1. To discharge from military service or use.

2. To disband (troops).
 and substance abuse prevention within Salvador’s gang communities.

The USG-supported Salvadoran

nongovernmental organization

Noun 1. NGO – an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
nongovernmental organization
 FundaSalva works with the GOES to
provide substance abuse awareness, counseling, rehabilitation, and


n the reimplantation and splinting of a tooth into the alveolus after dental trauma, such as avulsion, or following removal of the tooth.
 services (job training) to the public. In 2006, FundaSalva
provided demand reduction services to over 2,301 individuals. The USG
also sponsors the U.S.-based “Second Step” program. Second
Step is taught in first grade and assists teachers to identify

 /an·ti·so·cial/ ()
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.

2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder.
 behavior that later leads to substance abuse and violence.
Other less comprehensive demand reduction programs exist, and they are
usually faith-based and run by recovering addicts or religious leaders.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. U.S. assistance primarily focuses upon
developing El Salvador’s law enforcement agencies and on increasing
the GOES ability to combat money laundering and public corruption, and
ensuring a transparent criminal justice system. From September 28 to
October 7, 2006, the DEA country office, in conjunction with the U.S.
Department of Defense, the U.S. Coast Guard (

United States Coast Guard

 n abbr (= United States Coast Guard) → Küstenwache der USA
), and police and naval
forces from Guatemala and El Salvador, conducted a combined maritime
operation to disrupt trafficking operations off the
 /lit·to·ral/ () pertaining to the shore of a large body of water.


pertaining to the shore.
 coasts of
Central America. The operation resulted in the seizure of eight kg of
cocaine and the arrest of 22 individuals for trafficking offenses.

Bilateral Cooperation. The United States provided funding for
operational support of Grupo Cuscatlan and the high-profile crimes unit
(GEAN) within the Anti-Narcotics Police. The United States also funded
training and travel related to airport security, money laundering,
maritime boarding operations, and anti-gang measures.
Drug Enforcement

 as part of the Justice Department, thus uniting a number of federal drug agencies that had often worked at cross-purposes.
 officers work closely with the PNC counternarcotics unit,
the PNC financial crimes unit, the Financial Investigations Unit of the
federal prosecutor’s office, and the federal banking regulators on
issues relating to drug trafficking and money laundering. El Salvador
has benefited from several USCG courses including the Maritime Boarding
Officer Course and the International Maritime Officer’s Course.
Additionally, they hosted a regional, multi-national Port Security /
Vulnerability mobile training team course in which eight other countries

Road Ahead. The United States will continue to provide operational
and training support to Salvadoran law enforcement institutions, with an
emphasis on improving intelligence, investigations and prosecutions
leading to convictions. Increased integration of police and
prosecutors’ work will enable El Salvador to increase convictions,
as will increased use of evidence tools, such as fingerprint analysis
and case databases to solve crimes. Sharing information among law
enforcement and financial institutions will help El Salvador to
facilitate money laundering and trafficking investigations. In the
coming year, El Salvador will also be an active participant in the
regional anti-gang program.


I. Summary

Guatemala is a major drug-transit country for cocaine and heroin en
route to the United States and Europe. The Government of Guatemala (GOG)
made substantial progress in restructuring counternarcotics police
functions, passed an organized crime control act that will permit
wiretapping, and continued
opium poppy

 eradication efforts. In spite of
these efforts in 2006, traffickers exploited air, road, and sea routes
to move cocaine through Guatemala. The government is committed to
attacking corruption and has fired hundreds of corrupt police since
taking office. Insufficient resources, weak GOG middle management, and
widespread corruption hamper the GOG’s ability to deal with
narcotics trafficking and organized crime. Guatemala is party to the
1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Most cocaine destined for the United States transits the
Mexico/Central America corridor. Guatemala is an important transit point
for onward

shipment of cocaine to the United States. Guatemalan drug law
enforcement agencies underwent substantial restructuring after the
arrest of the country’s three top drug law enforcement officials in
November 2005. Guatemalan authorities interdicted 281 kg. of cocaine in
2006. Guatemala has limited capability to control the northern area of
the country where traffickers operate clandestine airstrips, or the
Eastern Pacific coastline, where traffickers are able to offload cargoes
with little impediment. Narcotics traffickers at times paid for
transportation services with drugs, which enter into local markets
leading to increased domestic consumption and crime.

In 2006, Guatemalan authorities eradicated 79 hectares of opium
poppy. Marijuana is also grown, but only for local consumption. During
2006, the Ministry of Health inspected all drug manufacturers and
distributors for compliance to rules related to
potassium permanganate

A dark purple crystalline compound used as an oxidizing agent and disinfectant and in deodorizers and dyes.
a precursor chemical for cocaine processing. Separately, as a result of
a 2005 inspection, the GOG filed its first court case alleging illicit
storage of and commerce in pseudoephedrine.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. The GOG uses a multi agency-working group to
focus their counternarcotics efforts. In 2006 Guatemala enacted a law
against organized crime. This law authorizes wiretaps, undercover
operations and controlled deliveries, and also provides a stronger
conspiracy statute. In 2005, the Berger government obtained
congressional reauthorization for three years of a law permitting joint
U.S./Guatemalan military and law enforcement operations in Guatemala.
Two such operations (known as “Mayan Jaguar”) were held in
2006 as part of an operation involving other Central American countries
and DOD’s Joint Interagency Task Force South, including
implementation of the U.S.-Guatemala bilateral maritime agreement and
support for DEA’s regionwide Operation All Inclusive.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Since the investigation and arrest of
three top officials from the GOG’s Anti-Narcotics Analysis and

Information Services

 (SAIA), in November 2005, SAIA has been fully
restructured with USG assistance. SAIA now focuses solely on
investigations, while the newly formed Division of Ports and Airports
(DIPA) staffs land points of entry and airports. All officers assigned
to these units, including management, are vetted.

In October, the GOG agreed to the boarding of a Guatemalan-flagged
vessel under the terms of the bilateral maritime agreement. As a result,
the U.S. Coast Guard seized approximately 1,632 kg of cocaine, arrested
four drug traffickers, and transferred them to the U.S. for prosecution.
SAIA seized 281 kg of cocaine in 2006. The GOG also eradicated 79
hectares of opium poppy.

There is close cooperation between the USG and the
Guatemalan Air


GAF Ghana Armed Forces
GAF Get A Freelancer  
), particularly during Mayan Jaguar exercises. While aging
aircraft and lack of money for fuel continue to be constraints, the GAF
provides air assets for interdiction missions and airlift for police and
prosecutors conducting drug interdiction and eradication operations.

The Public Ministry’s narcotics prosecutors receive USG
training and assistance, which aids them in achieving convictions, but
success in prosecuting major organized crime figures, including
narcotics traffickers, has been limited.

The USG supports the model police precinct in Villa Nueva to help
the PNC control police corruption and make inroads against gang-related
drug distribution, extortion, and murder. During 2006, the Villa Nueva
investigative unit had a 200 percent increase in cases investigated and
resolved, and now clears more than 60 percent of its cases. Crime
indices in Villa Nueva decreased and more citizens are filing formal
complaints as confidence in the police improves. Villa Nueva initiated
directed patrolling based on area crime statistics; the increased
patrols in Villa Nueva’s highest crime areas should further reduce
crime and increase public confidence.

Corruption. Guatemala does not encourage or facilitate illicit
production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other
controlled substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug
transactions. Senior government officials are not known to be involved
in these activities. Guatemala is pursuing numerous public corruption
cases against former public officials, army officers and police. The
anti-money laundering law is also being used as an anticorruption tool.
The attorney general opened 54 corruption cases during 2006, including
the prosecution of four former mayors for diversion and misuse of public

Corruption remains an obstacle for GOG counternarcotics programs.
After the 2005 arrest of the three top SAIA officers, the GOG redoubled
efforts to fight corruption in the National Civilian Police (PNC), using
rigorous vetting procedures. The Director General of the police enforces
a ”
zero tolerance

” policy on corruption, investigating
complaints through the Office of Professional Responsibility. A

 Law & medicine A civil or, far less commonly, criminal action that has had an impact on a particular area of medicine.
 was the July murder of the chief investigator in Villa Nueva. Two
former and one active duty police officers were arrested.

Agreements and Treaties. Guatemala is a party to the 1961 UN Single
Convention and its 1972 Protocol; the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic
Substances; the 1988 UN Drug Convention; the Central American Commission
for the Eradication of Production, Traffic, Consumption and Illicit Use
of Psychotropic Drugs and Substances; and the Central American Treaty on
Joint Legal Assistance for Penal Issues. Guatemala is a party to the UN
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three
protocols. Guatemala has a maritime counternarcotics agreement with the
U.S., and was one of the first countries to approve the Caribbean
Regional Maritime Counternarcotics Agreement when it opened for
signature in April 2003, but has not yet deposited it. Guatemala also is
a party to the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. In
addition, Guatemala ratified the Inter-American Mutual Legal Assistance
Convention, and is a party to the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control
Commission (an entity of the OAS).

The extradition treaty between the GOG and the USG dates from 1903.
A supplementary extradition treaty adding narcotics offenses to the list
of extraditable offenses was adopted in 1940. Guatemala does
v. ex·tra·dit·ed, ex·tra·dit·ing, ex·tra·dites
1. To give up or deliver (a fugitive, for example) to the legal jurisdiction of another government or authority.

 its citizens, but the required legal procedures can make the process
somewhat onerous. In 2006, the GOG extradited one Guatemalan citizen to
the U.S. U.S. citizen fugitives are usually expelled to U.S. custody on
the basis of violations of Guatemalan immigration laws. All U.S.
requests for extradition in drug cases are consolidated in specialized
courts located in Guatemala City.

Cultivation/Production. The is opium poppy cultivation, usually in
small fields situated in the San Marcos department, roughly totaling
about 100 ha at the end of 2006. Guatemala manually eradicated 48 ha of
poppy in 2005 and 47 ha in 2006. Guatemala and the USG conducted aerial
reconnaissance missions to plan GOG manual poppy eradication operations.
There is significant marijuana cultivation, all of which is consumed

Drug Flow/Transit. In 2006, the trend for maritime drug transit to
Guatemala shifted from go-fast boats to increased use of mother ships
working in concert with
fishing vessels

. These ships position themselves
beyond the 12 mile territorial waters limit and offload cocaine to the
smaller fishing vessels, which then smuggle the loads into the many
ports and estuaries along Guatemala’s Pacific coast. Once the
cocaine is landed in Guatemala, it is then broken down into smaller
loads for transit to Mexico enroute to the U.S.

Commercial containers continue as major land and sea avenues for
smuggling larger quantities of drugs through Guatemala’s ports of
entry. To address corruption in the seaports, the Ministry of Government

) ordered the formation of the DIPA to specialize in interdiction at
seaports, airports and land border points of entry. Initial experience
with the DIPA has been good, with increased detection of money and drug
couriers transiting
La Aurora International Airport

 in Guatemala City.
DEA information suggests that Guatemalan opium gum is shipped into
Mexico, and then processed in Mexico for distribution.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Guatemala’s demand
reduction agency, SECCATID, continued to implement the National Program
of Preventive Education (PRONEPI) and trained 1,600 teachers using the
“train the trainer” concept with the participation of the
Ministries of Health and Education. GOG has enough teachers trained that
drug prevention course is being institutionalized for 2007 academic
year. SECCATID, with

 support, provides technical assistance in
developing the curriculum appropriate for each grade level and methods
of evaluation.

The GOG approved regulations setting forth minimum legal
requirements for rehabilitation centers to operate. SECCATID provides
technical and commodity assistance to at least 50 centers to enable them
to come into compliance with the new standards.

The preschool Second Step pilot program implemented for 300
children, three to five years old, yielded improvements in
children’s coping skills, ability to manage and express their
emotions, and capacity for achieving solutions to their problems as
measured in post tests and teacher and parent observation. SECCATID,
with USG assistance, is expanding the program to other schools in the
city and two departments outside the capital. In coordination with the
Ministry of Government, SECCATID also expanded the Drug Abuse Resistance
Education (DARE) program from 6 to 28 PNC agents to cover more schools

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. strategy in Guatemala focuses on strengthening the law
enforcement and judicial sectors through training, technical assistance,
and the provision of equipment and infrastructure, especially for the
units directly involved in combating narcotics trafficking, gang crime,
and other international organized criminal activity that directly
affects the U.S. Special emphasis is placed on management skills,
leadership, human rights, investigative techniques, and case management
issues. The U.S. strategy also aims at reducing corruption in Guatemala
by assisting in implementing strong vetting and internal inspection
regimes, as well as through training, education, and public awareness

Bilateral Cooperation. The USG provides technical assistance in
education, training and public awareness programs to Guatemala’s
demand reduction agency, SECCATID. The USG also works with the Public
Ministry and the Attorney General to support three task forces dealing
with narcotics, corruption and money laundering investigations. The USG
provided maritime law enforcement (
) training, and assistance in
developing a “train the trainer” MLE curriculum to the
Guatemalan Navy. The USG provides support for SAIA through an agreement
with the Ministry of Government and to DIPA for ports. An important part
of this program is the Regional Counternarcotics Training Center. The
school teaches the basic entry course for new SAIA agents, as well as
advanced narcotics investigations and canine narcotics detection
courses. They also offer regional courses in polygraph, false documents,
intelligence analysis, and canine drug and explosive detection, among
others. In 2006, students from Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama participated.

The USG supports the development of a model police precinct in
Villa Nueva (a suburb of Guatemala City plagued by crime and gang
violence). In 2006, police in Villa Nueva arrested 157 gang members,
many of whom were involved in street level drug distribution. As a
result, crime indices declined, including homicides, auto theft, and
robberies. This work also includes community policing and directed
patrolling based on area crime patterns.

During FY-06, SOUTHCOM provided counter-drug funding to purchase
Harris radios and spare parts for ten M113’s (an armored personnel
carrier). These items are being used by Interagency Task Force North
(ITFN), based in the Peten region, in connection with its border
security and drug interdiction missions.

The Road Ahead. Future efforts will focus on investigations,
interdiction, corruption, money laundering, and task force development,
with emphasis on assisting the restructured SAIA and DIPA to become more
effective drug enforcement partners. A successful interdiction and
maritime strategy will involve close cooperation with units of the
Guatemalan military that have a clean human rights record. The USG will
also continue to assist the GOG in improving the successful Regional
Counternarcotics Training Center.


I. Summary

Honduras is a transit country for shipments of cocaine flowing
north from South America by land, sea and air. The Government of
Honduras (

GOH Guest of Honor
GOH Government of Haiti
GOH Gift of Hope
GOH Get Outta Here
GOH Garments on Hanger
GOH General Overhaul  
) cooperates with the U.S. in investigating and
interdicting narcotics trafficking, but faces significant obstacles in
terms of funding, a weak judicial system with heavy caseloads, lack of
coordination, and leadership challenges. Honduran President Jose Manuel
“Mel” Zelaya, took office in January 2006, and kept his
promise to attack corruption by implementing new measures, such as
passing the Transparency Law, which allows public scrutiny of government
actions; reforms to the Civil Procedure code, which will speed up
judicial processes and allow for public oral arguments; and instituting
polygraphs for members of special investigative units. Honduras is a
party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Honduras is a transit country for drug trafficking from the source
zone to the United States. Recent reports indicate that such transit is
increasing, as narcotics traffickers have been shifting their boat
traffic from Guatemala to Honduras. USG and Honduran counternarcotics
police and military units actively monitor the transshipment of drugs
through the country via air, land, and sea routes. Violent youth gangs
are also involved in retail drug distribution.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives President Zelaya and his new administration took
office in January 2006 vowing to take stronger measures against crime
and drugs, promising stronger international cooperation, and an increase
in the number of national police. President Zelaya has made combating
drug activities one of its major priorities. This includes the expansion
of maritime interdiction, especially along the north coast where most of
the drug trafficking occurs; strengthening international cooperation;
and Ministry of Public Security initiatives to weed out corrupt
officials. In 2006 Honduras passed two important laws: the Transparency
Law will give public access to more of the government’s dealings
and allow the public to obtain information about the ministries and
agencies; and the recently passed reforms to the Civil Procedure Code
will speed up the judicial process and allow for public oral arguments.
The GOH also instituted measures to polygraph members of special
investigative units, and to fire police who have committed crimes or are
linked to drug traffickers.

President Zelaya requested USG assistance to support a plan of
action to reorganize the National Police and the Honduran law
enforcement counternarcotics efforts. This plan, which also includes
reforms to the Police Organic Law, is expected to pass Congress early in
2007. GOH actions to reform and improve the National Police in 2006
include the addition of 2,300 officers, with plans to add another 2,000
in 2007; reorganization of the police command to
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities.
 the police
and appoint regional commanders with more autonomy to fight crime in
their areas; creation of motorcycle patrols for the cities to put more
cops on the streets; and a purge of cops who have committed crimes or
are linked to drug traffickers. Police operations have been supplemented
by training 300 military personnel in law enforcement techniques and
implementing two joint patrol operations searching for drugs, stolen
vehicles, criminals, and illegal weapons.

Accomplishments. Drug-related arrests at Honduras’ borders
increased as a result of road interdiction operations by the Frontier
Police and other forces. An intelligence initiative and a criminal
database to organize information have given positive results. GOH
maritime interdiction has been successful in apprehensions and arrests
of persons and ships involved in drug trafficking in conjunction with
USG assistance. GOH law enforcement agencies have also intercepted
several major shipments of weapons for drugs conducted between Honduran
gunrunners and Colombian drug dealers.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Honduras was a major participant in
Operation All Inclusive, a USG interagency counternarcotics operation.
The operation was initiated as a regional counternarcotics initiative
directed at major drug trafficking organizations exploiting the
countries of Central America and Mexico. With the participation of the
Honduran Navy, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) assets searched Honduran flagged
vessels and seized over 6,636 kg of cocaine at sea. In other actions,
counternarcotics forces seized 736 kg of cocaine, 807 kg of marijuana,
and arrested 403 people in 2006. Authorities seized $194,273 in cash. It
is unusual for large amounts of marijuana to be smuggled in Honduras,
but, in 2006, police arrested two subjects transporting approximately
500 kg of marijuana on a public bus near La Ceiba. Prosecution, however,
was less successful due to judicial corruption, inefficiency,
overwhelming caseloads and funding constraints.

Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GOH does not facilitate the
production, processing, or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs
or other controlled substances. The GOH takes legal and law enforcement
measures to prevent and punish public corruption although convictions
are rare. Honduras is a party to the OAS Inter-American Convention
Against Corruption and the UN Convention against Corruption. In 2006,
the Minister and Vice Minister of Public Security voluntarily took and
passed polygraph and drug tests. Minister Romero has asked the Honduran
Congress to pass legislation requiring all GOH national law enforcement
personnel to submit to polygraphs and drug testing. Police reforms are
also directed at rooting out corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. Honduras has counternarcotics agreements
with the United States, Belize, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, Venezuela,
and Spain. Honduras is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 UN Single
Convention as amended by its 1972 Protocol. Honduras’ major public
maritime ports are in compliance with International Ship and Port
Facility Security codes and the country is an active member of the
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). Honduras is a
party to the UN Convention Against Corruption and the UN Convention
Against Transnational Organized Crime. A U.S.-Honduras maritime
counternarcotics agreement entered into force in 2001 and a bilateral
extradition treaty is in force between the U.S. and Honduras. Honduras
is one of ten nations to sign a bilateral Caribbean Maritime Counter
Drug Agreement with the U.S., but has not yet ratified it. A Declaration
of Principle was signed between the U.S. and Honduras on December 15,
2005 as part of the
Container Security Initiative


CSI Crime Scene Investigation
CSI Christian Schools International
) for the
inspection of sea-going cargo destined to the U.S. and other countries.

Cultivation and Production. Marijuana, the only known drug
cultivated in Honduras, is planted throughout Honduras in small isolated
plots and sold locally. The most productive areas for marijuana
cultivation are the mountainous regions of the departments of Copan,
Yoro, Santa Barbara, Colon, Olancho, and Francisco Morazan.

Drug Flow and Transit. South American cocaine destined for the
United States flows through Honduras by land and sea. Remote areas, such
as the Department of Gracias a Dios, are a natural safe haven for the
traffickers, offering an isolated area to
v. re·fu·eled also re·fu·elled, re·fu·el·ing also re·fu·el·ling, re·fu·els also re·fu·els
To supply again with fuel.

 maritime assets or
effect boat-toboat transfers. Most of the area is accessible only by sea
or air. Aircraft is also used to smuggle cocaine, but numbers decreased
after a surge in 2003. Heroin is believed to be transported through
Honduras to the United States, possibly also in liquid form that is sold
and transported in small quantities.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Increased drug trafficking and
use by gang members, which target young school children, is a growing
concern. The Honduran Government is conscious that drug trafficking and
usage poses security threats as well as social problems. Programs to
deal with these problems include the cooperation of numerous church and
NGO groups dealing with pro-active drug awareness and rehabilitation
programs. Job skills, family counseling, and demand reduction are
included in the USG-sponsored umbrella NGO project with the Ministry of
Public Health.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Honduras cooperates closely with the USG in
investigations and operations against drug trafficking. The Special
Vetted Unit gathers sensitive narcotics intelligence that is then passed
to other Honduran law enforcement agencies. The unit targets major
traffickers operating in Honduras and has been instrumental in the
disruption and disbanding of international organized crime groups. In
2006, the unit developed and implemented a biometric database of all
known youth gang members. The USG also supports anti-corruption programs
within the Ministry of Public Security by providing funding and
logistical support to the newly formed National Police Internal Affairs

The Road Ahead. The Zelaya administration’s steps to improve
the National Police will translate into stronger counternarcotics
activities. The GOH would like to

To place a person in the care of an institution, especially one providing care for the disabled or mentally ill.

 anti-corruption and
improved methodology with improvements to the police academy. A new
Organic Police Law will come up for approval this year, and will allow
for mandatory drug tests and polygraphs of the police. The USG is
encouraging GOH law enforcement entities to conduct cooperative criminal
investigations on trafficking organizations on the North Coast and other
areas of the country. The GOH is especially concerned about traffickers
establishing bases in the department of Gracias a Dios, and is
investigating ways to beef up government presence there. The Declaration
of Principle Agreement (

) that initiated the Container Security
Initiative (CSI) shared by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection with
participating countries will be a major deterrent to target drug
smuggling, weapons trafficking, and terrorism utilizing ocean-going,
containerized cargo.


I. Summary

Throughout 2006, the Fox Administration cooperated with U.S. law
enforcement counterparts at levels unmatched by any previous Mexican
government. Mexican authorities dismantled major drug trafficking
organizations, and extradited 63 fugitives to the United States. The
Government of Mexico (

) also continued to eradicate opium poppy and
marijuana, and pursue money-laundering cases. Health officials
dramatically reduced the legal importation of methamphetamine precursors
into Mexico. The GOM also seized large amounts of methamphetamine,
precursors, marijuana, cocaine and heroin. Mexico is party to the 1988
UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Mexico is a major transit and source country for illicit drugs
reaching the United States. Roughly 90 percent of all cocaine consumed
in the United States transits Mexico. Given their close proximity,
Mexican processors and growers supply a large share of the heroin
distributed in the United States, even though Mexico produces a
relatively small percentage of the global supply of opium poppy and
heroin. Mexico remained the largest foreign supplier of marijuana to the
United States and is a major supplier and producer of methamphetamine.

Seizure statistics for cocaine and methamphetamine during 2006
demonstrate Mexico’s significance as a production and transit
country. The GOM dismantled two cocaine labs and seized four
methamphetamine “super labs” (i.e., having a production
capacity of 10 pounds or more per processing cycle). During 2006,
Mexican authorities seized 21 metric tons (MT) of cocaine and 0.6 MT of

Mexico itself has been profoundly affected by this drug
trafficking. Levels of violence, corruption and internal drug abuse rose
in 2006. Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) control domestic
drug production and trafficking, as well as the laundering of drug
proceeds. These DTOs also undermined and intimidated Mexican law
enforcement and public officials. The extensive licit cross-border
traffic between the two countries provides ample opportunities for drug
smugglers to deliver their illicit products to the U.S. market. The
escalation of drug-related crime and violence was of particular concern
during 2006. Press reports indicate that between 2,000 to 2,500
drug-related homicides occurred in Mexico during 2006.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. President Fox’s domestic policy agenda
emphasized the promotion of a more transparent, professional and
accountable law enforcement and judicial system. Yet, no laws were
passed that significantly changed the underlying structure. Legislation
passed included a new juvenile justice code, as well as a constitutional
amendment that guaranteed the right of defendants to be represented by a
professional public defense, rather than by a “trusted

In 2006, Congress also passed legislation-delegating jurisdiction
to state authorities to pursue or investigate individuals engaging in
retail sales (“narcomenudeo”) of illicit drugs. The Fox
Administration initially supported the draft law to promote greater
involvement by state and local police agencies. However, the addition of
provisions that decriminalized possession for personal use of small
quantities of certain drugs, however, led to its eventual veto by
President Fox.

During 2006, the
Federal Investigative Agency


AFI Air Force Instruction
AFI Australian Film Institute
AFI Agencia Federal de Investigación
) investigated
and arrested drug traffickers, violent kidnappers and corrupt officials.
AFI also brought on-line nine Clandestine Laboratory Response Vehicles
donated by the USG to support First Responders at the discovery of
methamphetamine labs; over 1,700 AFI agents were also trained on how to
conduct raids of

Methamphetamine hydrochloride.
 labs. U.S. law enforcement agencies provided AFI
personnel with basic equipment instruction and advanced contraband
detection training on three mobile Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System

VACIS Victorian Ambulance Clinical Information System  
) vehicles deployed in 2006 to inspect trucks for drugs,
explosives and other contraband.

Multilaterally, Mexico promoted efficient and effective anti-drug
and anti-corruption policies. In December 2006, Mexico was elected Chair
of the OAS/CICAD Working Group on Precursor Chemical and Pharmaceutical
Control because of its leadership in the region in controlling precursor
chemical diversion.

Accomplishments. Significant Mexican counternarcotics enforcement
actions in 2006 included sophisticated organized crime investigations,
marijuana and poppy eradication, strong bilateral cooperation on drug
interdiction and arrests of several major drug traffickers. Those
included Estephan Marin, an associate of the Juarez Cartel, Jorge Asaf
who was wanted for distributing 1.5 MT of cocaine, Rolando Villareal and
Octavio Arellano for each distributing 1 MT of marijuana and over 5 kg
of cocaine, and Claudio Garcia Rodriguez for transporting 550 kg of
opium. In 2006, the GOM arrested over 11,000 persons, including many
significant drug leaders, lieutenants, operators, money launderers and

Law Enforcement Efforts. In 2006, Mexican authorities seized more
than 21 MT of cocaine
 /hy·dro·chlo·ride/ () a salt of hydrochloric acid.

A compound resulting from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base.
 (HCl), 1,849 MT of marijuana, 0.4 MT
of heroin and 0.6 MT of methamphetamines. They seized 1,220 vehicles, 46
maritime vessels and 15 aircraft, and arrested 11,579 persons on
drug-related charges, including 11,493 Mexicans and 86 foreigners.

Corruption. As a matter of policy, no senior GOM official, nor the
GOM encourages or facilitates the illicit production or distribution of
narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or
laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. During 2006, the
Fox Administration strictly targeted corruption. Aggressive
investigations, better pay and benefits for employees and better
selection criteria for Federal government employment have all deterred
corruption. In 2006, the Secretariat of Public Administration (which
investigates corruption across the Federal government) reported that
3,597 inquiries and investigations into possible malfeasance or
misconduct by 2,693 federal employees resulted in the dismissal of 202
federal employees, the dismissal of an additional 743 employees with
re-employment restrictions, the suspension of 953 employees, 1,040
reprimands and the issuance of eight letters of warning, as well as the
imposition of 651 economic sanctions that brought over seven billion
pesos in fines and reimbursements into the Treasury.

Agreements and Treaties. Mexico is a party to the 1961 United
Nations Single Convention on Drugs (as amended by the 1972 Protocol) and
to the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Mexico
also subscribes to regional counternarcotics commitments, including the
1996 Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere and 1990 Declaration of
Ixtapa. In April 2003, Mexico ratified the Protocol against the Illicit
Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms that supplements the United
Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo
Convention), bringing the country into full adherence to the Convention.
Mexico is also a party to the Inter-American Convention Against
Corruption; in July 2004, it ratified its membership to the
Nations Convention Against Corruption

. Mexico is a party to the 1988 UN
Drug Convention.

The current bilateral Extradition Treaty has been in force since
1980. The 2001 Protocol to this Treaty allows for the temporary
surrender for trial of fugitives serving a sentence in one country but
wanted on criminal charges in the other. The United States and Mexico
are also parties to a bilateral Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty

Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance. In 2006, Mexican
authorities extradited 63 fugitives to the United States, making it the
fifth consecutive record year. Of the total number of extraditions, 30
were for narcotics related offenses in the United States and 47 were
Mexican citizens. Extradition of significant leaders of drug trafficking
organizations in 2006, however, was complicated by numerous and lengthy
delays that these wealthy and powerful fugitives were able to procure
through the use of the “amparo” appeal process in
Mexico’s courts. Cooperation with Mexico for the return of
fugitives steadily increased during the Fox Administration. In November
2005, the Mexican Supreme Court reversed a ruling that had prohibited
Mexico’s extradition of fugitives facing life imprisonment without
parole. That decision was a major breakthrough in the U.S./Mexico
extradition relationship and in 2006 facilitated the extradition from
Mexico of fugitives charged with narcotics and violent offenses.

Just prior to publication of this report in January 2007, for the
first time, Mexico extradited several high-level traffickers whose
extraditions had been delayed for some time due to judicial appeals or
pending charges. Those included Osiel Cardenas Guillen, the leader of
the Gulf cartel, Jesus Hector Palma Salazar of the Sinaloa cartel, and
Ismael and Gilberto Higuera Guerrero of the Arellano Felix Organization,
as well as Gilberto Salinas Doria and Miguel Angel Arriola Marquez.

In addition to extraditions, U.S. and Mexican law enforcement
agencies also coordinated closely to
tr.v. de·port·ed, de·port·ing, de·ports
1. To expel from a country. See Synonyms at banish.

2. To behave or conduct (oneself) in a given manner; comport.
 or otherwise expel numerous
fugitives to the United States. During 2006, Mexican police and
immigration authorities–in cooperation with the U.S. Marshals Service

) and the
Federal Bureau of Investigation
 (FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of Justice charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency.
 (FBI), deported 150
non-Mexican fugitives (mostly U.S. nationals) to the United States to
stand trial or to serve sentences. Many of these fugitives were wanted
on U.S. drug charges.

Cultivation and Production. Mexican authorities also conducted
extensive eradication efforts against opium poppy and marijuana,
dedicating up to 30,000 soldiers and 6,000 sailors to eradication
efforts in 2006. With annual Mexican domestic consumption estimated at
100-500 MT, the majority of the marijuana Mexico produces is bound for
the U.S. market. Preliminary GOM data indicated that overall eradication
of marijuana remained near the 2005 level, amounting to 29,928 ha of
cannabis in 2006. The GOM also reported eradicating 16,831 ha of opium
poppy cultivation in 2006. While this reflects a 12 percent decrease
compared to 2005, it remains within the range set in prior years.

Drug Flow and Transit. U.S. officials estimate that over 90 percent
of the cocaine departing South America that reaches the United States
transits through Mexico. After cocaine arrives in Mexico, most is
transported overland to the land border with the United States. En
route, the cocaine is warehoused at various points throughout the
country, with storage locations typically depending on where the

DTO Data Transport Option
DTO Disruptive Technology Office
 wields influence. Like marijuana, cocaine is primarily moved on
commercial trucks modified with hidden compartments or concealed within
legitimate cargo, as well as in autos, railcars and aircraft.

The Mexican heroin trade remains highly fragmented, unlike Mexican
cocaine trafficking, which is dominated by the DTOs. A mix of opium
farmers, heroin processors and small-scale trafficking groups operating
independently or in mutually supportive business relationships controls
Mexican heroin production. Typically, farmers sell their opium harvest
to a trafficker with access to heroin processors and distribution

Both the Mexican and U.S. Governments are concerned over the shift
of the manufacture and trafficking of methamphetamine and its precursors
into Mexico. Although concentrated in the areas of Baja California,
Michoacan, Jalisco, Sinaloa and Sonora, methamphetamine production and
trafficking can occur virtually anywhere in the country. While seizures
of cocaine, heroin and marijuana along the U.S.-Mexico border have
remained relatively stable over the last four years, seizures of
methamphetamine have risen.

Domestic Programs. Domestic drug use is rising in Mexico. The most
commonly used drug is marijuana, followed by cocaine and such inhalants
as aerosol-propelled paints, glue, etc. Use is most prevalent along the
border with the United States and in Mexico’s central regions,
while use is on the decline in southern Mexico. Methamphetamine abuse is
on the rise, especially along the U.S. border. Mexico has 70,000-100,000
methamphetamine users, who consume 5-10 MT of the drug annually. The
state of Baja California has a particularly severe abuse problem,
centered in Tijuana. Federal health officials coordinate prevention,
treatment and rehabilitation programs through use of state
organizations, ancillary federal entities and private foundations.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Bilateral counternarcotics cooperation
continued at unprecedented levels and represented one of the most
positive aspects of the bilateral relationship. U.S. law enforcement
personnel shared sensitive information on drug traffickers with select
Mexican counterparts, resulting in the capture and conviction of drug
traffickers, as well as significant seizures of illicit narcotics.
USG/GOM coordinated interdiction efforts led to the Mexican military
seizing over 16 MT of cocaine from maritime vessels; it also led to the
seizure of 30 MT of marijuana. On several occasions USG assets on the

high seas

 chased suspected smugglers into Mexican waters where the
Mexican Navy continued the pursuit.

The GOM and the USG inaugurated the

SENTRI Smart Sensor Enabled Neural Threat Recognition and Identification  
 (Secure Electronic
Network for Traveler’s Rapid Inspection) access lanes, constructed
with NAS funding, at Tijuana/San Ysidro and Mexicali/Calexico in March,
Nogales/Nogales in September, and Nuevo Laredo/Laredo in October.
Construction began on the SENTRI access lane at Matamoros/Brownsville in
October. Contractors prepared the design drawings for the new SENTRI
lane at Reynosa/Hidalgo, and construction should begin early 2007. The
SENTRI projects facilitate the cross-border movement of travelers who
have enrolled in the program and undergone background investigations.

In 2006, the USG also provided Clandestine Laboratory training for
law enforcement personnel to bolster local capabilities against
synthetic drugs, particularly methamphetamine. The USG provided the AFI
with equipment, including nine specially designed Clandestine Laboratory

Throughout 2006, the USG also supported institutional development
across Mexico’s law enforcement structure, one of the Fox
Administration’s top priorities. The U.S. and Mexican Governments
cooperated on initiatives that enhanced the ability of law enforcement
agencies to track and take down DTO members, while also targeting their
ill-gotten gains through enhanced anti-money laundering efforts. Both
governments also worked closely to address the border violence,
particularly in Nuevo Laredo, that reflects a fierce struggle for
control of the smuggling corridor in this area following the capture of
various DTO leaders.

The USG’s Law Enforcement Professionalization and Training
Program provided 136 training courses to 4,526 GOM law enforcement
officers. The

PGR Procuraduría General de la República
PGR Patriot Guard Riders  
 Police Academy continued the successful Criminal
Investigations School initiated by the USG in 2004. Over 1,700 AFI
candidates and agents have received this course in the past three years.
In 2006, 385 information technology engineers received 79 related
courses on computer software applications.

The Road Ahead. The record of accomplishment during the outgoing
Fox Administration fosters high expectations for what might be achieved
with the incoming Calderon Administration. Important institutional
changes have resulted in a level of cooperation with U.S. law
enforcement that would have been unimaginable even ten years ago.

The incoming Calderon Administration has enunciated a vision of
public security that includes innovations in counternarcotics and law
enforcement, including the reform of the justice system, the creation of
a unified federal police force under a single command, the establishment
of a unified criminal information system and the development of a regime
that will combat drug addiction.

V. Statistical Tables

                                   2006      2005      2004      2003

Drug Crop Cultivation (Unit):

Harvestable Cultivation (Ha)         --        --        --        --
Eradication (Ha)                 16,831    21,609    15,925    20,034
Potential Opium Gum (Mt)             --        --        --        --
Potential Heroin (Mt)                --        --        --        --

Harvestable Cultivation (Ha)         --        --        --        --
Eradication (Ha)                 29,928    30,842    30,851    36,585
Net Cannabis Production (Mt)         --        --        --        --

Labs Destroyed:                      17        39        23        22

Cocaine (Mt)                         21        30        27        21
Cannabis (Mt)                     1,849     1,786     2,208     2,248
Opium Gum (Kg)                       75       275       464       198
Heroin (Kg)                         351       459       302       306
Methamphetamine (Kg)                621       979       951       751

Nationals                        11,493    19,076    18,763     8,822
Foreigners                           86       146       180       163
Total Arrests                    11,579    19,222    18,943     8,985


(1) The PGR National Center for Analysis, Planning and Intelligence
against Organized Crime (CENAPI) provided statistics on eradication,
seizures and arrests.


(1) The PGR National Center for Analysis, Planning and Intelligence
against Organized Crime (CENAPI) provided statistics on eradication,
seizures and arrests. Canada, Mexico and Central America


I. Summary

As part of the Central American isthmus, Nicaragua’s position
makes it a significant sea and land transshipment point for South
American cocaine and heroin. The
Government of Nicaragua

 (GON) is making
a determined effort to fight both domestic drug abuse and the
international narcotics trade, despite an ineffectual, corrupt, and
politicized judicial system. The GON is also trying to prevent
establishment of the criminal youth gangs. In 2006, Nicaraguan drug
police and Navy forces seized 9,720 kg (kg) of cocaine. Nicaragua is a
party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Drug traffickers move illegal narcotics through Nicaragua by land,
sea, and air. The Atlantic coast is a primary transit route for drugs
being smuggled principally to the United States and Canada but also to
European markets. In 2006, Nicaragua seized large amounts of narcotics
along its Atlantic coast, an area physically and culturally isolated
from the rest of Nicaragua, including an April seizure of 763 kg of
cocaine. In the last year, drug traffickers have shifted their methods
of operation to avoid heavy patrols and detection on the Atlantic side;
it is now estimated that three quarters of drug trafficking occurs on
the Pacific Coast. Traffickers are using the numerous fishing channels
on the Pacific side to hide their activities.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. The GON is aware of its need to strengthen the
legal system especially money laundering legislation, but was unable to
pass adequate legislation in 2006. The Nicaraguan Navy established its
first Naval Infantry Company to staff outposts on the numerous rivers
and estuaries on Nicaragua’s Caribbean Coast where drug trafficking

Accomplishments. In 2006, the GON carried out major seizures of
transshipped South American cocaine and heroin headed for U.S. markets.
The Nicaraguan National Police (

NNP New Nationalist Party
NNP Neural Network Processor
) also conducted operations against
local drug distribution centers and large shipments transiting the
country, gathering intelligence on their locations and making arrests.
The extent of marijuana planting is unknown, but the GON eliminated
14,000 plants in 2006.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Nicaraguan authorities seized a total of
23.39 kg of heroin and 9,720 kg of cocaine in 2006, arrested 67
international traffickers (20 of which have been convicted and
sentenced), and seized nearly $3 million in U.S. currency. The GON also
uncovered arms trafficking related to these cases and seized a cache of
weapons that included 3 grenade launchers, 2 Uzis, 9 AK-47s, several
pistols and machine guns and ammunition for all the weapons in April. In
October, the NNP seized 39 AK-47s and two pistols which were directly
tied to drug trafficking. According to law enforcement sources, most
weapons cases in Nicaragua are linked to Colombian terrorist

The police Narcotics Unit have 95 officers (down from 116 in 2005),
including administrative support, to cover all of Nicaragua. The 850-man
Nicaraguan Navy, with assistance from the USG, is developing a
long-range patrol capability, using two donated patrol boats have been
completely retrofitted as of 2006. With USG assistance the Nicaraguan
Navy has revamped and put into operation a captured narcotics vessel,
which will support extended blue water operations off the Caribbean
coast of Nicaragua.

Corruption. As a matter of policy, The GON does not encourage or
facilitate the illicit production or distribution of narcotic or
psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions. However corruption is a
pervasive and continuing problem, despite attempts to address it.
Multiple factors make it difficult to eliminate corruption, including
low salaries for police and judges and poor law enforcement
infrastructure. Nicaragua’s weak and corrupt criminal justice
system lowers the risk of detection and effective prosecution,
encouraging the proliferation of narcotics trafficking and transnational
criminal organizations. Cash rich criminals have acquired a cloak of
impunity through bribery and extortion of judicial and law enforcement

The Nicaraguan justice system is also politicized, with posts
awarded based on political affiliation and court decisions manipulated
for political ends. Corrupt judges often let detained drug suspects go
free after a short detention, a practice that puts them quickly back on
the streets and undercuts police morale. Several judges had their U.S.
visas revoked in 2006 due to corruption and/or their involvement in drug
trafficking. The Nicaraguan Attorney General (who represents the
interests of the state) has been publicly critical of the inactivity and
ineffectiveness of the Financial Analysis Commission controlled by the
Prosecutor General (who represents society). The Prosecutor General
initiated not a single money-laundering investigation in 2006. On a
positive note, the new Police Chief began her tenure in September by
implementing immediate anti-corruption measures, including replacing
some key personnel. Naval personnel working counter drug operations are
routinely rotated and personal effects are searched to deter corruption.
Nicaraguan Army military justice regulations allow for the imposition of
strict penalties for corruption and treason.

Agreements and Treaties. Nicaragua is a party to the 1961 UN Single
Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on
Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. A
U.S.-Nicaragua extradition treaty has been in effect since 1907.
Nicaragua is a member of the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force

) and is about to be sanctioned for its failure to comply with the
requirements and recommendations outlined in its most recent country
report. The United States and Nicaragua signed a bilateral
counternarcotics maritime agreement in November 2001. Nicaragua is a
party to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its
protocol on trafficking in persons and is a member of the Inter-American
Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) of the Organization of American
States (OAS). Nicaragua is a party to the Inter-American Convention
against Corruption and in 2001 signed the consensus agreement on
establishing a mechanism to evaluate compliance with the Convention.
Nicaragua also ratified the Inter-American Mutual Legal Assistance
Convention in 2002, an agreement that facilitates sharing of legal
information between countries. Nicaragua was one of the first countries
to sign the Caribbean regional maritime counternarcotics agreement when
it opened for signature in April 2003, but has not yet taken the
necessary internal steps to bring it into force.

Cultivation/Production. The exact amount of marijuana cultivated in
Nicaragua is unknown, but the quantity and quality are low, and it is
consumed locally. Other illegal drugs are not cultivated or produced in

Drug Flow/Transit. GON and USG law enforcement authorities report
that there is evidence of increased trafficking on the Pacific coast by
air and sea. Aircraft suspected to be smuggling narcotics have crashed
along the Pacific Coast, but drugs and passengers were gone before law
enforcement officials arrived on the scene. Clandestine airstrip
construction on the Pacific Coast is another indicator of the shift in
trafficking. Along with the air transport of narcotics, maritime
transport of cocaine along the Pacific Coast increased dramatically in
2006. The Navy seized several vessels near
San Juan del Sur
 , town, SW Nicaragua, on the Pacific Ocean.
Pochomil. Together with the NNP, the Nicaraguan Army Special Operations
Unit seized 3,100 kg of cocaine and 12 assault rifles on the
Montelimar-Managua highway, near San Juan del Oeste–the largest seizure
of cocaine in Nicaraguan history. Five suspects were arrested with links
to a Mexican drug trafficking cartel. Another key area for Nicaraguan
law enforcement is the Penas Blancas land crossing on the Costa Rican
border, which has more than 200 trucks transiting daily. The NNP
inspects about 10 percent of the total number of trucks crossing into
Nicaragua and routinely seizes significant amounts of drugs.

The Atlantic/Caribbean coast is physically and culturally isolated
from the rest of Nicaragua. This region has been granted a degree of
political autonomy by the national government. Unemployment on the
Atlantic coast is high, which makes the illicit drug trade extremely
attractive to local residents. Nicaraguan law enforcement points to the
surprising number of new homes and hardware stores appearing in the
region as evidence that more people are being lured into the drug

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Drug consumption in Nicaragua
is a growing problem, particularly on the Atlantic coast, where the
increase in narcotics trans-shipment during recent years has generated a
rise in local drug abuse. The Ministries of Education and Health, the
NNP, and the Nicaraguan Fund for Children and Family (FONIF) have all
undertaken limited demand reduction campaigns. The D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse
Resistance Education) Program, established in Nicaragua in 2001, has
grown to include secondary schools. During the second two years of the
program, 2004-2006, 22,000 students received certificates.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. During 2006, the United States provided
counternarcotics and law enforcement assistance to the NNP. The USG
continued support to the Nicaraguan Navy with maintenance and
refurbishment of three large naval boats and numerous smaller patrol
boats for maritime interdiction on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
The USG provided eight Zodiac boats with motors to the Nicaraguan Navy
and Naval Infantry to begin patrolling in the numerous estuaries along
Nicaragua’s Caribbean Coast, and secure communications devices for
the Navy. In 2006 the USG ordered specialty equipment, spare parts, and
outboard motor replacements for the Nicaraguan Navy patrol boats, which
will be delivered in 2007. Nicaragua is cooperating with U.S. efforts to
disrupt international terrorist financing. The USG shares information
with the Superintendent of Banks as well as the Ministry of Finance and
the Foreign Ministry on suspect persons or organizations whose assets
should be frozen. The USG provided a Resident Legal Advisor and other
related programs and activities to the GON in support of a new
multi-agency anticorruption initiative that will include the police,
Attorney General and other government agencies.

The Road Ahead. The USG hopes to work cooperatively with
Nicaragua’s new leaders to address the threat that illegal drugs
pose to Nicaraguan society and the country’s sovereignty. Nicaragua
still needs anti-corruption reform, including professionalization and
de-politicization of the judiciary and the Prosecutor General’s
office, and the passage and application of stronger statutes to combat
corruption and money laundering. Amendment of Nicaraguan law and
constitution to allow for extradition of Nicaraguan citizens who commit

1. Located outside territorial boundaries:

 crimes could break the cycle of impunity.


I. Summary

By virtue of its geographic position and well-developed
transportation infrastructure, Panama is a major drug trans-shipment
country for illegal drugs to the United States and Europe. The Torrijos
Administration has cooperated closely with the U.S. and its other
neighbors on security and law enforcement issues. U.S. support to
Panama’s law enforcement agencies, including assistance in
restructuring their organizations, remains crucial to ensure fulfillment
of agency missions. Panama is a party to the 1988 United Nations Drug

II. Status of Country

Panama’s geographic proximity to the South American cocaine
and heroin producing countries makes it an important trans-shipment
point for narcotics destined for the U.S. and other global markets.
Panama’s containerized seaports, the Pan-American Highway, a
rapidly growing international hub airport, numerous uncontrolled
airfields, and unguarded coastlines on both the Atlantic and Pacific
facilitate drug movement. Smuggling of weapons and drugs continues,
particularly between the Darien region and Colombia. Over the last year,
Panamanian authorities have paid greater attention to security along the
border with Costa Rica, inaugurating a border check post in Guabala in
May 2006. The flow of illicit drugs has contributed to increasing
domestic drug abuse, encouraged public corruption, and undermined the
Government of Panama’s (GOP) criminal justice system. Panama is not
a significant producer of drugs or precursor chemicals. However,
cannabis is cultivated for local consumption.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2006

Policy Initiatives. The Torrijos Administration considers
counternarcotics and anti-crime cooperation with the U.S. and combating
corruption key priorities. A legal reform proposal currently before
Congress will modify the criminal system from a written (
1. Of, relating to, or having the function of an inquisitor.

2. Law
a. Relating to a trial in which one party acts as both prosecutor and judge.

to an oral (accusatorial) system. The GOP has also drafted legislation
to merge the current National Air Service (SAN) and National Maritime
Service (

SMN Santa Maria Novella
SMN Summoner
) into a Coast Guard.

Accomplishments. USG law enforcement agencies continued to enjoy a
cooperative relationship with GOP counterparts in narcotics-related
criminal matters. International drug-related arrests increased slightly
since last year. A three-year investigation by the Drug Prosecutors
Office (

DPO Direct Public Offering
DPO District Police Officer
DPO Days Payables Outstanding
DPO Document Process Outsourcing
DPO Days Past Ovulation
), the Public Ministry’s Technical Judicial Police

), and several other law enforcement agencies in the region
culminated in the May 2006 arrest in Brazil of Pablo Rayo Montano, a
Colombianborn drug kingpin. Assets located in Panama belonging to his
criminal cartel were among those seized by the GOP following his
indictment by a U.S. federal court in Miami.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA)-monitored statistics for 2006 indicate seizures of over 36 metric
tons (MT) of cocaine, 107.24 kg (kg) of heroin, over 4 MT of marijuana,
over $8 million (including cash, diamonds and gold), 299 arrests for
international drug-related offenses, and seven extraditions for such
offenses. In 2006, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
developed a joint strategic bulk cash smuggling initiative with
Panamanian Customs called Operation Firewall, which resulted in seizures
of approximately 40 kg of gold (valued at approximately $900,000),
$357,100 in U.S. currency, and 26,000 Euros.

Several USG-supported GOP units grew and expanded operations in
2006- the PTJ Sensitive Investigative Unit (

) responsible for
investigations of major drug and money laundering organizations; as well
as the Panamanian National Police (PNP) Mobile Inspection Unit and Paso
Canoas (Costa Rica border) Interdiction Enhancements, the
International Airport

 Drug Task Force, and the Canine Unit made major
arrests and seizures.

The SMN responds to USG requests for boarding and interdictions,
assists the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with verifying ship registry data,
and transfers prisoners and evidence to Panama for air transport to the
United States.

The SAN provides excellent support for counternarcotics operations,
for example, seizing 500 kg of cocaine and a stolen aircraft, and
apprehending two Mexican traffickers in April 2006. The SAN also
participated in the interdiction of several go-fast targets in
cooperation with

 South, and seized a twin engine King Air B-90
when traces of drugs were detected through an IONSCAN machine donated by
the USG. The SAN patrols and photographs suspect areas, identifies
suspect aircraft, and provides logistical support in the transfer of
detainees and drug evidence through Panama to U.S. jurisdiction.

The GOP has begun to draft legislation (requiring passage by
Congress) to merge the SMN and SAN into a “Coast Guard.”

Corruption. President Torrijos’s administration, through its
National Anti-Corruption Commission, which is charged with coordinating
the government’s anticorruption activities, made strides towards
purging corruption from government, including auditing government
accounts and launching investigations into major public corruption
cases. Despite the Torrijos Administration’s public stance on
corruption, few high-profile cases, particularly involving political or
business elites, have been acted upon. A USG-funded “Culture of
Lawfulness” program has trained officials from the Ministry of
Education, the PNP, and the PTJ, and a separate initiative to train
twelve PNP officers as certified polygraphists has resulted in improved
PNP candidate selection.

Agreements and Treaties. Panama is a party to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs, as amended
by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic
Substances. A mutual legal assistance treaty and an extradition treaty
are in force between the U.S. and Panama, although the Constitution does
not permit extradition of Panamanian nationals. A Customs Mutual
Assistance Agreement and a stolen vehicles treaty are also in force. In
2002, the USG and GOP concluded a comprehensive maritime interdiction
agreement. Panama has bilateral agreements on drug trafficking with the
United Kingdom, Colombia, Mexico, Cuba, and Peru. Panama is a party to
the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its three
protocols, and is a signatory to the UN Convention Against Corruption.
Panama is a member of the Organization of American States and is a party
to the Inter-American Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal
Matters and the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption.

Cultivation and Production. There have been no confirmed reports of
cocaine laboratories in Panama since 1993-94. Limited cannabis
cultivation, principally for domestic consumption, exists in Panama,
particularly in the Pearl Islands.

Precursor Chemicals. Panama is not a significant producer or
consumer of chemicals used in processing illegal drugs. However, it is
believed that a significant volume of chemicals transits the Colon Free
Zone (

CFZ Canucks Fan Zone  
) for other countries. The Panamanian agencies responsible for
chemical control are the National Drug Control Council (
) and
the Ministry of Health. Legislation to strengthen Panama’s chemical
control regime was signed by President Torrijos in April 2005. With the
new precursor chemical control legislation in place, focus shifted in
2006 towards capacity building to implement the new laws. The new
legislation created a chemical control unit, which is co-located with
the Joint Intelligence Coordination Center (

JICC Joint Information Coordination Center
JICC Joint Industry Coupon Conference
JICC Joint Information Collection Center
JICC Japanese Instrument Control Center
), a multiagency
intelligence information center manned by members of all public forces
and the PTJ with direct access to over 25 databases. The Chemical
Control Unit worked closely with DEA Diversion Investigators to initiate
investigations on suspicious companies. The Chemical Control Unit
identified 20 companies that need to be monitored on a regular basis and
conducted administrative inspections at several company sites. The
Chemical Control Unit also coordinated with the PNP Narcotics Unit to
conduct the necessary enforcement operations. The GOP also improved its
ability to combat precursor chemical diversion through training and by
conducting joint investigations with the DEA in 2006.

Drug Flow/Transit. Panama remains an integral territory for the
transit and distribution of South American cocaine and heroin, as
indicated by the more than 36 metric tons (MT) of cocaine and over 100
kg of heroin seized in 2006. The drugs were moved in fishing vessels,
cargo ships, small aircraft, and go-fast boats. Illegal airplanes
utilized hundreds of abandoned or unmonitored legal airstrips for
refueling, pickups, and deliveries. Couriers transiting Panama by
commercial air flights also moved cocaine and heroin to the U.S. and
Europe during 2006.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Through CONAPRED the GOP is
implementing a five-year counternarcotics strategy that includes 29
demand reduction, drug education, and drug treatment projects for 2002
through 2007. The GOP has set aside $6.5 million to fund the projects.
In 2006, CONAPRED funded seven prevention and/or treatment projects with
a total cost of approximately $1.05 million. The Ministry of Education
and CONAPRED, with USG support, promoted anti-drug training for
teachers, information programs, and supported the Ministry of
Education’s National Drug Information Center (CENAID).

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs.

Policy Initiatives. USG-supported programs focus on improving
Panama’s ability to intercept, investigate, and prosecute illegal
drug trafficking and other transnational crimes; strengthening
Panama’s judicial system; assisting Panama to implement domestic
demand reduction programs; encouraging the enactment and implementation
of effective laws governing precursor chemicals and corruption;
improving Panama’s border security; and ensuring strict enforcement
of existing laws.

The Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) in the U.S. Embassy provided
crucial equipment and training support for the
1. Of, relating to, or inhabiting a river or stream.

2. Produced by the action of a river or stream.

[Middle English, from Latin
1. Relating to or resembling a river.

2. Located on or inhabiting the banks of a river; riparian:
division of the PNP, one of the major success stories of the GOP’s
interdiction efforts. The NAS
Department of Homeland Security


DHS Department of Human Services
DHS Department of Health Services
DHS Demographic and Health Surveys
DHS Dirhams  
), and
USCG provided resources for modernization and upkeep of SMN boats and
bases, and began assisting SAN in providing air patrol platforms for
drug interdiction efforts. The USG provided Panamanian Customs with
training, operational tools, and a canine program that has become a

 or lynch·pin  
1. A locking pin inserted in the end of a shaft, as in an axle, to prevent a wheel from slipping off.

 of the Tocumen Airport Drug Interdiction Law Enforcement Team.

A major NAS law enforcement modernization project to
professionalize the PNP involves implementing community policing,
expanding existing crime analysis technology, and promoting managerial
change to allow greater autonomy and accountability. Work is nearly
complete on the initial phase of the national crime tracking and mapping
system (INCRIDEFA), which will enable the PNP to track criminal
incidents in real time. Training to achieve police management change has
been developed with the
Miami-Dade Police Department

 and the
of Louisville

 Southern Police Institute.

In 2006 the USG also assisted the GOP in upgrading the Attorney
General’s Anti-Corruption Prosecutor’s Office. The USG
supplied training, computers, office equipment, and other necessary

Bilateral Cooperation. The Torrijos’ Administration continued
to sustain joint counternarcotics efforts with the DEA and to strengthen
national law enforcement institutions. The maritime interdiction
agreement has facilitated enhanced cooperation in interdiction efforts,
with Panama playing a vital role in facilitating the transfer of
prisoners and evidence to the U.S. enabling USG assets to remain on
patrol in theater.

The Road Ahead. The USG encourages Panama to devote sufficient
resources to enable its forces to patrol land borders along Colombia and
Costa Rica; its coastline, and the adjacent sea-lanes; and to increase
the number of arrests and prosecutions of major violators, especially in
the areas of corruption and money laundering. The USG will work closely
with the GOP on the development of a new Panamanian Coast Guard, and
support law enforcement modernization through improved equipment
maintenance, strategic planning,
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities.
 of decision-making,
and communityoriented policing philosophies.

V. Statistical Tables

Drug Seizures and Arrests in Panama
CY 2004-CY 2006

(In kg unless otherwise specified)

                        2004          2005           2006

Cocaine                7,080         13,793         36,636 *
Heroin                   97           41.6          107.24
Marijuana              4,046        12,411.9        4,276.9
MDMA                    -0-       2,432 tablets       -0-
Pseudoephedrine      3,006,430         -0-            -0-
Amphetamines            -0-            -0-         926 tablets
Currency             $1,946,645    $10,294,798    $8,384,761.39+
Arrests                 231            308             299
Prisoner Transfers     9/113          12/84           12/100
  (#of events/# of
Renditions               3              3               0
Extraditions/            3              5               7
Labs Destroyed          -0-            -0-             -0-